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EU Funding Opportunities for Digital Resilience of MSMEs
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Introduction to EU Budget

Setting the Stage: Understanding EU Financial Landscape  

EU BUDGET: a pivotal force, not as a replacement but as a complement to national budgets. It serves as a reservoir of financial and economic resources strategically deployed by EU institutions to sustain economies and societies, extending impact beyond national borders. This financial lifeline empowers EU countries to attain superior performances than they would achieve independently.

The essence of the EU budget lies in its multifaceted support system:

  1. Long-term Development Goals: The EU budget channels resources towards fostering sustainable development, laying the   groundwork for enduring societal and economic advancements
  2. Savings of Public Funds: Acting as a (co)financer of expansive projects, the EU budget facilitates substantial savings in   public funds, fostering responsible and impactful financial practices
  3. Internationalisation of Best Practices: By nurturing an environment conducive to international collaboration, the EU   budget promotes the exchange of best practices and case studies across national borders
  4. Timely and Efficient Support: The EU budget positions itself as a timely and efficient support system, extending its reach   to citizens, public administrations, and businesses when needed the most

EU budget represents a dynamic financial journey, strategically aligned with the EU’s long-term objectives. It operates within multi-annual structured cycles, aiming to ensure strategic financial management over set periods.

The multi-annual structured cycles are settled in seven-year intervals, with the current one that spans from 2021 to 2027.

This cyclical approach in the strategic planning of financial activities is reflected in the operation of the budget and fund management within specific intervals, which are also cyclical – from long-term budget to annual budget.

Periodically, the effective deployment of funds goes through the following steps that make up a management process:


EU institutions collaboratively plan financial allocations through the launch of specific programmes.

  The budget planned or requested by the various beneficiaries undergoes approval processes, ensuring alignment with EU objectives.


Funds are distributed and projects are implemented.


Results are continuously assessed to gauge the impact and effectiveness of financial allocations.

Inside the Budgeting Process: Long-term and Annual Budget  

Building upon the understanding of the EU financial landscape and the introduction of related seven-year cyclicality, let’s delve inside the budgeting process, navigating it from the long-term to the annual implications.

Long-term Budget

Also recognised as Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), this long-term budget spans seven years, establishing spending funds for EU categories and priorities like digitalisation or rural development.

Recall the seven-year cycles, MFF acts as a strategic blueprint, steering EU initiatives. The current 2021-2027 MFF aligns with EU priorities and long-term agenda, fostering coherence in programmes and projects.

MFF negotiation involves key EU institutions (Parliament, Council, and Commission) where the Commission plays a pivotal role in proposing funds allocation and spending ceilings, revenue streams, resource decision and legislation for related funding programmes.

Annual Budget

Complementing the MFF, the Annual Budget addresses specific yearly priorities through collaborative (re)negotiation among EU institutions.

Within a seven-year cycle, it represents the pivotal focus to align short-term goals with the broader MFF strategy. As a dynamic process, it allows agile responses, eventually adapting to emerging needs and opportunities within the single year – e.g., COVID, geopolitical shocks.

The Annual Budget undergoes a rigorous calendar-driven negotiation process, involving estimates (by July), proposals (by September), and positions (by October) from the Commission, Council, and Parliament, ensuring transparency and adaptability.

Within this holistic framework of the EU budgeting process, the MFF and Annual Budget work in tandem, effectively ensuring a balance between long-term vision and short-term goals, also allowing for agile responsiveness as needed.

Focusing on the 2021-2027 cycle, the EU’s long-term budget, powered by the NextGenerationEU recovery instrument, reaches an unprecedented €2.018 trillion (as per current prices in November 2020).

Dual composition:

  • MFF for 2021-2027: €1.211 trillion
  • NextGenerationEU: €806.9 billion

Key highlights:

  • Over 50% of the total aims to advance the EU through research, innovation, fair climate and digital transitions, as well as preparedness, recovery, and resilience, marking a significant focus in modernisation
  • 31.9% is allocated to address new and reinforced priorities, underscoring a dynamic approach to emerging challenges
  • 30% is dedicated to address the challenges of climate change, with a focus on biodiversity protection and gender-related issues
  • 10% of the spending for 2026 and 2027 is committed to biodiversity
  • 20% of NextGenerationEU funding is directed toward bolstering the digital transformation

2021-2027: A modernised EU long-term budget, powered by the NextGenerationEU

Source: European Commission, The 2021-2027 EU budget – What’s new?


Empowering the Future: NextGenerationEU  

…but what is the NextGenerationEU?

NextGenerationEU is a recovery instrument complementing the MFF introduced in 2020 in response of the socio-economic repercussions of the pandemic. It aims to steer Europe towards research, innovation, sustainability, digital transitions, and resilience at large.

NextGenerationEU foresees a financial injection of EUR 806.9 billion, of which EUR 723.8 billion is earmarked for the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), plus a contribution of EUR 83.1 billion to existing programmes such as REACT-EU, HORIZON EU, etc.

The RRF provides substantial support for public investments, with a focus on green and digital projects. Funded by NextGenerationEU, these resources, totalling €338 billion in grants and €385.8 billion in loans, have been channelling into various programmes and among EU countries as beneficiaries, i.e. the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP).

The allocation of funds follows criteria like GDP per capita, unemployment rates, population size, and the pandemic’s impact.

NextGenerationEU: more than €800 billion for Europe's recovery

Source: European Commission, The 2021-2027 EU budget – What’s new?

Allocating Resources: Budget Allocation Strategies  

Who benefits from the EU budget?

Efficiently organising funding, the EU budget strategically divides resources into spending categories (headings – see next slide for further details) and programmes, ensuring effective support for beneficiaries across various EU policy areas. This approach facilitates a cross-cutting impact, aligning with the overarching goals of the long-term budget.

Integration with NextGenerationEU:

While NextGenerationEU operates as a distinct instrument, its financial streams seamlessly integrate with programmes embedded in the long-term budget. This synergy ensures that the impact of NextGenerationEU is maximised across diverse policy domains.

Dual Funding for Key Headings:

To amplify its influence, several headings receive funding from both the MFF and NextGenerationEU. This collaborative approach enhances the budget’s capacity to address multifaceted challenges and bolster transformative initiatives.

  • Heading 1: Single Market, Innovation and Digital
    • Research and Innovation
    • EU strategic investments
    • Single Market
    • Space
  • Heading 2: Cohesion, Resilience and Values
    • Regional Development & Cohesions
    • Recovery and Resilience
    • Investing in People, Social Cohesion and Values
  • Heading 3: Natural Resources and Environment
    • Agriculture & Maritime Policy
    • Environment & Climate Action
  • Heading 4: Migration & Border Management
    • Migration
    • Border Management
  • Heading 5: Security & Defence
    • Security
    • Defence
  • Heading 6: Neighbourhood & The World
    • External Action
    • Pre-Accession Assistance
  • Heading 7: European Public Administration


Allocations per heading for 2021 to 2027 - in billion

Source: European Commission, The EU’s 2021-2027 long-term budget and NextGenerationEU – Facts and figures

Allocations per policy and programme – with a focus on MFF

Breaking down the 2021-2027 MFF reveals targeted allocations that drive impactful policies and programmes.

A substantial 31.9% is earmarked for critical areas such as research, education, and border protection, fostering a holistic approach to EU priorities. When integrating NextGenerationEU funding, this share surges beyond 50% of the total, emphasising the collective commitment to fortify key sectors for sustainable growth and resilience.

Additionally, economic, social, and territorial cohesion secures a 30.5% share, while the common agricultural policy commands 30.9%. Notably, both policies undergo significant modernisation, aligning with the overarching goal of supporting green and digital transitions.

To the right, a detailed table presents an overview of MFF allocations per policy and programme, offering transparency and insight into the strategic distribution of resources.


Long-term budget allocation (2021-2027)


Cohesion Policy


European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)


Cohesion Fund (CF)


European Social Fund+ (ESF+)


Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)


European Agriculture Guarantee Fund (EAGF)


European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EFRD)


New and reinforced priorities


Horizon Europe


Neighbourhood, development and international Cooperation Instruments


Connecting Europe Facility




European Space Programme


Digital Europe Programme


Single Market Programme


Justice, Rights & Values






Creative Europe




Humanitarian Aid


Life (Climate and Environmental Action)


Just Transition Fund




Introducing the Path: Centralised vs. Decentralised Funding  

Centralised Funding

The centralised funding involves the direct management and execution of funds and programmes by EU institutions. Here, the European Commission takes a lead role in administering and managing programmes and initiatives, ensuring uniformity and cohesion in implementation


  • Horizon Europe: A flagship EU programme for research and innovation directly managed by the EU Commission
  • Erasmus+: Centralised funding for education, training, youth, and sport programmes under the EU Commission’s oversight

Decentralised Funding

In contrast with the centralised funding, the decentralised one empowers Member States (and Regions) to manage EU funds in a shared management framework. They take the lead in the design, execution, and oversight of programmes, aligning EU objectives and goals with regional needs and priorities.


  • Common Agricultural Policy (CAP): Member States design agricultural programmes tailored to their specific needs
  • European Regional Development Fund (ERDF): Decentralised funding addressing regional needs and disparities and promote local development initiatives

Strategic Collaboration: Both routes come together to accomplish general EU objectives. Centralised financing simplifies programmes throughout the EU, whereas decentralised funding encourages customised initiatives that take into account the uniqueness and diversity of local needs.

A Deep Dive into EU Programmes

Focus on Direct vs. Shared Management Framework  

Within the direct management framework, let’s explore the leading role of the European Commission. It assumes a pivotal position, directly being responsible and overseeing every facet of a programme’s implementation:

  1. Launching Calls for Proposals: Initiating the process by inviting project proposals
  2. Evaluating Submitted Proposals: Rigorous assessment to ensure alignment with objectives
  3. Signing Grant Agreements: Formalizing commitments with successful project proponents
  4. Monitoring Project Implementation: Ongoing oversight to guarantee adherence to set guidelines
  5. Assessing the Results: Evaluation of project outcomes against predefined criteria
  6. Making Payments: Facilitating financial disbursements as stipulated

These comprehensive tasks unfold within the Commission's departments, spanning its headquarters, EU delegations, or through designated EU executive agencies. Notably, centralised programs executed through direct management constitute approximately 20% of the EU budget for 2021-2027. This centralized approach ensures a cohesive and streamlined implementation process, driven solely by EU entities without the involvement of external third parties.

Beside the direct management framework, let’s focus on the shared management framework, where EU funds are jointly administrated with the Member States and Regions. This collaborative model involves both the European Commission and national authorities within Member States, including ministries and public institutions, jointly overseeing specific programmes. Approximately 70% of EU programmes operate under this shared management structure.

Within shared management, Member States’ administrations at national, regional, and local levels play a key role in selecting projects for financing and assume day-to-day management responsibilities. Through a synergistic partnership with Member States, the EU Commission ensures the successful completion of projects and the effective utilisation of funds.

The national website portals and programme websites provide real-time information on upcoming funding opportunities. This includes details such as the regions covered by funding calls, eligibility criteria, funding amounts, programme and EU policy objectives, and timelines.

Key EU funds managed under the shared framework include:

Comprehensive Overview of EU Funding Programmes  

Recalling the EU programmes highlighted in the resource allocation discussion (refer to section 1.4 (3) – slide no. 11), let’s now explore their distribution across various cross-cutting priority areas. Each programme is dedicated to supporting distinct policy areas, as illustrated below:

  • Cohesion policy
  • Common agricultural policy
  • Just Transition Fund
  • Horizon Europe
  • Recovery and Resilience Facility
  • LIFE programme Connecting Europe Facility
  • InvestEU
  • Cohesion policy
  • European Fund for Sustainable Development+
  • Single Market programme
  • Recovery and Resilience Facility
  • European Defence Fund
  • European space programme Military mobility
  • EU4Health
  • Horizon Europe
  • Common foreign and security policy
  • European Social Fund+
  • Erasmus+
  • European Solidarity Corps
  • Horizon Europe
  • Creative Europe
  • Horizon Europe
  • Digital Europe programme
  • Connecting Europe Facility
  • Cohesion policy
  • Recovery and Resilience Facility

Access EU funding & tenders’ opportunities and available EU programmes through the SEDIA Portal – free consultation

Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF)

Border Management and Visa Policy Instruments (BMVI)

Citizens, Equality, Rights and Values Programme (CERV)

Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)

Creative Europe Programme (CREA)

Customs Control Equipment Instrument (CCEI)

Customs Programme (CUST)

Digital Europe Programme (DIGITAL)

Erasmus+ (ERASMUS+)

EU External Action (RELEX)

EU4Health Programme (EU4H)

Euratom Research and Training Programme (EURATOM)

Europe Direct (ED)

European Defence Fund (EDF)

European Maritime, Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EMFAF)

European Parliament (EP)

European Social Fund + (ESF+)

European Solidarity Corps (ESC)

Fiscalis Programme (FISC)

Horizon Europe (HORIZON)

Information Measures for the EU Cohesion policy (IMREG)

Innovation Fund (INNOVFUND)

Internal Security Fund (ISF)

Interregional Innovation Investments Instrument (I3)

Just Transition Mechanism (JTM)

Justice Programme (JUST)

Neighborhood development and international cooperation (NDICI)

Pilot Projects and Preparation Actions (PPPA)

Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE)

Programme for the protection of the Euro against Counterfeiting (PERICLES IV)

Promotion of Agricultural Products (AGRIP)

Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS)

Single Market Programme (SMP)

Social Prerogative and Specific Competencies Lines (SOCPL)

Technical Support Instrument (TSI)

Union Anti-fraud Programme (EUAF)

Union Civil Protection Mechanisms (UCPM)

Union Renewable Energy Financing Mechanism (RENEWFM)

…and many more



Roots-like Structure of EU Funding Programmes: E+ as an Example  
EU Programmes for Upskilling, Reskilling and Business Competitiveness  

Here are some examples of key EU programmes dedicated, among other things, to skills development and promoting the competitiveness of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). These enterprises are encouraged to explore these valuable opportunities to strengthen their digital resilience and remain competitive.


Erasmus+ stands as a flagship EU programme, promoting skills development through international collaboration, providing opportunities for work placements, vocational training, and strategic partnerships. Its initiatives cover a broad spectrum, from vocational education and training to adult learning, fostering a skilled workforce adaptable to digital advancements.

Benefits for MSMEs: Gain access to a diverse talent pool, explore international partnerships, and leverage insights for continuous skill enhancement, fostering adaptability in the face of technological changes.

European Social Fund Plus (ESF+)

The European Social Fund Plus focuses on social inclusion and employment. In the realm of skills development, ESF+ supports projects aimed at enhancing workforce skills, promoting lifelong learning, and ensuring equal access to employment opportunities. Its initiatives address the entire skills spectrum, from basic education to advanced professional development.

Benefits for MSMEs: Tap into funding opportunities for comprehensive training programmes, skill-building initiatives, and projects promoting social inclusion, contributing to a skilled and inclusive workforce.

Horizon Europe – Cluster 4: Digital, Industry, and Space

Cluster 4 of Horizon Europe focuses on digital transformation and innovation. Within this cluster, EU programmes support projects that advance digital skills, foster innovation in industry, and enhance competitiveness in the digital era. From research and development initiatives to collaborative projects, it offers a comprehensive approach to strengthening business competitiveness.

Benefits for MSMEs: Seize opportunities for collaborative research, engage in innovative projects, and gain access to cutting-edge technologies, positioning MSMEs at the forefront of digital competitiveness.


InvestEU, a successor to the COSME programme for MSMEs, is a EU initiative designed to boost investment, innovation, and job creation in Europe. It operates through loans, guarantees, and equity, aiming to mobilise private investment to address market failures and encourage sustainable growth. InvestEU covers a range of sectors, including innovation, digitalisation, and environmental sustainability, fostering a competitive and resilient business environment.

Benefits for MSMEs: Engage in innovative projects and initiatives with access to diverse financial instruments. InvestEU supports MSMEs in gaining financial backing for projects that contribute to their competitiveness, digitalisation, innovation, and sustainability. By participating in InvestEU, businesses can tap into a network of resources and opportunities to strengthen their market position.


The Standard EU Project’s Lifecycle – Start & Apply

Macro-Initial Phase: From Project Idea to Proposal  

The journey of an EU project begins with the conception of an idea. The initial step involves conceptualising a project that aligns with EU priorities and objectives. This idea is then shaped into a comprehensive formal project proposal – to be submitted. The macro-initial phase of moving from an idea to a proposal consist of various key steps:

  1. Project Conceptualisation:
    • Identify a concept for a project that aligns with EU priorities
    • Define the overarching objectives, goals and outcomes of the proposed idea of project through a concept note
  2. In-Depth Analysis:
    • Assess the feasibility of the project, considering resources, timelines, and any challenges
    • Conduct a preliminary review of the project’s alignment with EU objectives and goals
  3. Partner(s) and Stakeholder(s) Engagement:
    • Identify and engage relevant stakeholders, including potential partners, targets, and experts
    • Gather input and support for the project idea from key stakeholders
  4. Alignment with EU Guidelines:
    • Ensure that the concept note aligns with the guidelines and priorities of the specific and targeted EU funding programme
    • Address any specific requirements outlined in the funding call of reference
  5. Detailed Project Planning:
    • Develop a detailed project plan outlining specific activities, milestones, deliverables and timelines
    • Formulate a budget estimate based on the planned project plan

To transition from the macro-initial phase to the proposal writing (and then to its submission), it is essential to deal with the key documents that guide the proposal process. These include:

  • EU Regulation: The official regulation, published on the Official Journey of the European Union, that establish the specific programme in its elements such as budget, % funding, timeline, funded actions, etc.
  • Work Programme: A comprehensive document outlining the strategic objectives, priorities, roadmap for deadlines, budget breakdown and specific areas of interest for funding within a certain period. It is published on the programme’s website
  • Programme Guide: A detailed manual providing in-depth insights into the overall structure, rules, objectives, priorities and specific requirements of the funding programme. It also includes the eligibility and award criteria for a proposal
  • Call for Proposals: Also published on the Official Journey of the European Union and notified through the news section of the programme website, it opens the period for submitting a proposal, representing the official call that specifies the procedural details and the deadlines for each action
  • Form: The official template through which applicants submit their project proposals, capturing essential details outlined in the Call for Proposals

Applicants must thoroughly analyse these documents to align the project idea with the programme’s characteristics. Key aspects to consider include:

  • Strategic Alignment
  • Thematic Relevance
  • Compliance
  • Form Completion
Proposal Development Phase: Framework and Key Elements  

When we introduce the form completion (see previous slide – no. 21), we have already started talking about the phase following the initial one, i.e. the proposal writing or development phase.

Adhering to the “WHY, WHAT, WHO, WHEN, HOW” framework ensures a systematic and comprehensive approach to proposal development. Here is a focus on the key elements of the proposal development phase:

  • Objectives – WHY:
    • General Objectives: Long-term aims producing benefits beyond the project duration, contributing, improving, strengthening, facilitating, and implementing
    • Specific Objectives: Attainable during the project’s lifetime, such as testing a concept or developing new knowledge


  • Connect objectives to relevant European policies, such as the 2030 European Digital Decade
  • Showcase how the proposal addresses a pertinent problem
  • Measure potential impact / improvement, linking it to EU strategic objectives and specific programme’s priorities
  • Define mechanisms and actions for results sharing and promotion, uptake measures, and validation by end users
  • Ensure project sustainability: financial, political-institutional, environmental
  • Results – WHAT:
    • Tangible Results (Deliverables): Concrete outcomes like platform, app, training curricula, publications, reports, etc.
    • Intangible Results: Includes new skills and knowledge, proven added value, etc.
  • Responsibilities – WHO:
    • Project Partners Agreement: Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for each partner, linking them with their expertise
    • External Stakeholder Involvement: Includes engaging and involving stakeholders, including for example an External Review Evaluation Committee, Associated Partners, etc.
  • Planning and Execution – WHEN & HOW:
    • Action Plan: Develop a comprehensive plan outlining the tasks, phases and timelines – also through project management tools such as a Gantt chart
    • Budget Allocation: Allocate the budget effectively, ensuring resources are distributed based on project needs and distribution of partners’ roles and responsibilities
Submission and Proposal Evaluation Process  

After comprehensive development, the proposal is formally submitted through the designated platform (formal submission), signifying the conclusion of the idea-to-proposal process. The completed form is submitted through the specified platform, which varies according to the specific programme requirements.

At the same time, a new process begins: the proposal evaluation process.

Project Evaluation: The submitted proposal undergoes evaluation by designated entities and evaluators. Evaluation criteria include criteria such as clear objectives, tangible and intangible results, stakeholder responsibilities, and strategic alignment.

If Approved: The project proceeds to compliance and execution, with contract negotiations following feedback from evaluators. The project starts with a kick-off and concludes, after its implementation, with a final report on project results.

If Not Approved: A revision strategy is initiated, involving a detailed analysis of received feedback and necessary adaptations for improvement. The review process comprises two key phases:
  • Revision and Feedback: The revision phase focuses on improving the strengths of the proposal and correcting weaknesses identified through the evaluator's feedback, ensuring a stronger presentation in any subsequent evaluations
  • Continuous Improvement: This critical phase emphasises adaptability and commitment to the success of the project; each iteration reinforces the quality of the proposal and alignment with the evaluation criteria for resubmission
Summing up  


Unit 1 explores the journey through the intricacies of the EU budget, a dynamic financial force strategically aligned with long-term objectives. Navigate the seven-year Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) and the agile Annual Budget, witnessing the modernised 2021-2027 cycle powered by the NextGenerationEU recovery instrument. Delve into the €2.018 trillion allocation, emphasising digital and green transitions. Witness the EU budget’s impact on research, innovation, and resilience, fostering a cohesive, responsive, and forward-looking financial ecosystem.


Unit 3 embarks on the standard EU project lifecycle, from idea to proposal, submission, and evaluation. Master the macro-initial phase, meticulously shaping project concepts aligned with EU priorities. Dive into the proposal development phase, employing the “WHY, WHAT, WHO, WHEN, HOW” framework for clear objectives, tangible results, and strategic planning. Conclude with the submission and evaluation process, unveiling the pathway to project approval or strategic revision, ensuring continuous improvement for resilience in the competitive EU funding landscape.


Unit 2 navigates the landscape of EU programmes, distinguishing between centralised and decentralised funding. Uncover the roots-like structure of funding programmes and explore their distribution across diverse policy areas. Witness the pivotal role of programs like Erasmus+, European Social Fund+, Horizon Europe, and InvestEU in upskilling, reskilling, and enhancing business competitiveness. Leverage the SEDIA portal for free consultations, empowering your journey to access EU funding opportunities.


At the end of this module you will be able to…


  • Understand the concept landscape of reference for EU budgeting, evaluating trends up to 2027
  • Analyse the multiannual financial framework (MFF), NextGenerationEU and annual budgeting processes with related management frameworks, identifying their role in shaping EU funding policies


  • Navigate the diverse landscape of EU funding programmes, understanding their roots-like structure
  • Evaluate specific EU programmes addressing upskilling, reskilling, and business competitiveness, with insights into their application for MSMEs


Comprehend the EU project’s lifecycle, from the project’s idea to the evaluation process

Learning Outcomes:
Ideas & opportunities
Into action

Specific competences addressed:
Spotting Opportunities, Mobilising Resources, Taking the Initiative, Planning & Management
Information and data literacy
Problem solving

Specific competences addressed:
Browsing, searching and filtering data, information and digital content, Identifying needs and technological responses, Identifying digital competences gaps

EU Budget; EU Funds; 2021-2027 Cycle; Long-term Budget; Annual Budget; Multiannual Financial Framework; NextGenerationEU; Centralised Funding; D&

Related Glossary

  • Grant:
    A grant is a financial award provided by a funding body, often a government or an organization, to support specific projects or activities. Grants are typically non-repayable and aim to fund initiatives that align with the goals and priorities of the funding entity.
  • Loan:
    A loan is a financial arrangement where a lender provides funds to a borrower with the expectation of repayment, usually with interest, over a specified period. Loans can be used to finance various projects, and the terms and conditions vary based on the agreement between the borrower and lender.
  • GDP per capita:
    GDP per capita is a key economic indicator that measures the average economic output per person in a specific region or country. It is calculated by dividing the gross domestic product (GDP) by the total population. GDP per capita provides insights into the economic well-being and standard of living of a population.
  • NRRP (National Recovery and Resilience Plan):
    The NRRP is a strategic document developed by EU Member States to access funding from the Recovery and Resilience Facility under NextGenerationEU. It outlines national strategies for economic recovery, resilience, and reforms, focusing on areas such as green transition, digital transformation, and social inclusion.
  • Gantt chart:
    A Gantt chart is a visual project management tool that provides a timeline view of tasks, activities, and milestones. It helps project managers and teams to plan, schedule, and track progress over time, offering a clear representation of the project's workflow.
  • See all terms

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